Peer-Reviewed Publications


Puettmann, K.J., L. Ganio, D. Woodruff, and B. Morgan. 2021. Influence of neighbourhood competition on Douglas-fir growth is not altered by local environmental conditions and climate. Forest Science. In press.

Betts, M.G., Phalan, B.T., Wolf, C., Baker, S.C., Messier, C., Puettmann, K.J., Green, R. Harris, S.H., Edwards, D.P., Lindenmayer, D.B., and A. Balmford. 2021. Producing wood at least cost to biodiversity: integrating Triad and sharing-sparing approaches to inform forest management. Biological Reviews.

Puettmann, K.J. 2021. Extreme events: Managing forests when expecting the unexpected. Journal of Forestry 119(4):422–431,

Ehbrecht, M., Seidel, D., Annighöfer, P., Kreft, H., Köhler, M., Zemp, D., Puettmann, K., Nilus, N., Babweteera, F., Willim, K., Stiers, M., Soto, D., Boehmer, H-J., Fisichelli, N., Burnett, M., Juday, G., Stephens, S., and C. Ammer. 2021. Global patterns and climatic controls of forest structural complexity. Nature Communication. 12:519 |


Pulido, D., Salas. J., Ros, M., Puettmann, K., and S. Karaman. 2020. Assessment of tree detection methods in multispectral images. Remote Sensing. 12(15), 2379; doi:10.3390/rs12152379.

Soto, D. P. and K.J. Puettmann. 2020. Merging multiple equilibrium models and adaptive cycle theory in forest ecosystems: Implications for managing succession. Current Forestry Reports.

Himes A. and K. Puettmann. 2020. Trade-offs between ecosystem services along gradients of tree species diversity and values. Ecosystem Services. 44, 101133.

Windmuller-Campione, M.A., Russell, M.B., Sagor, E., D’Amato, A.W., Ek, A.R., Puettmann, K.J., and M.G. Rodman. 2020. The Decline of the Clearcut: 26 Years of Change in Silvicultural Practices and Implications in Minnesota. Journal of Forestry. 118(3): 244–259.

Coble, A.A., Barnard, H., Du, E., Johnson, S., Jones, J., Keppeler, E., Kwon, H.,. Link, T.E., Penaluna, B., Reiter, M., River, M., Puettmann, K., Wagenbrenner, J. 2020. Long-term hydrological response to forest harvest during seasonal low flow: potential implications for current forest practices. Journal of the Total Environment. 730 138926.

Donoso, P., K. Puettmann, A. D'Amato, D. Ponce, C. Salas-Eljatib, and P. Ojeda. 2020. Short-term effects of variable-density thinning on regeneration in hardwood-dominated temperate rainforests. Forest Ecology and Management.

Burton, J., S.S. Perakis, J.R. Brooks, and K.J. Puettmann. 2020. Trait integration and functional differentiation among co-existing plant species. American Journal of Botany. 107(4): 628-638.

Himes, A. and K.J. Puettmann. 2020. Tree Species Diversity and Composition Relationship to Biomass, Understory Community, and Crown Architecture in Intensively Managed Plantations of the Coastal Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 50(1):1-12.


Bannister, J.A., G. Travieso, N. Galindo, M. Acevedo, K. Puettmann, and C. Salas-Eljati. 2019. Shrub influences on seedlings performance when restoring the slow-growing conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum in fire-disturbed southern bog forests. Restoration Ecology. 28(2):396-407.

Puettmann, K.J. and C. Messier. 2019. Simple guidelines to prepare forests for global change: The dog and the frisbee®. Northwest Science. 93(3-4): 209-225.

Soto, D.P., K.J. Puettmann, C. Fuentes, and D.F. Jacobs. 2019. Regeneration niches in Nothofagus-dominated old-growth forests after partial disturbance: Insights to overcome arrested succession. Forest Ecology and Management. 445:26-36

Messier, C., Bauhus, J., Doyon, F., Maure, F., Sousa-Silva, R., Nolet, P., Mina, M., Aquile, N., and K. Puettmann. 2019. The functional complex network approach to foster forest resilience to global changes. Forest Ecosystems. 6:21


Punches, J. and K.J. Puettmann. 2018. Distribution of epicormic branches and foliage on Douglas-fir as influenced by adjacent canopy gaps. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 48:(11) 1320 - 1330, 10.1139/cjfr-2018-0071

Fahey, R.T., Alveshere, B., Burton, J.I., D’Amato, A., Dickinson, E.L., Keeton, W.S., Kern, C.C., Larson, A.J., Palik, B.J., Puettmann, K.J., Saunders, M.R., Webster, C.R., Atkins, J.W., Gough, C.M., and Hardiman, B.S. 2018. Shifting conceptions of complexity in forest management and silviculture. Forest Ecology and Management 421: 59–71.

Soto, D.P. and K.J. Puettmann. 2018. Topsoil removal through scarification improves natural regeneration in high-graded Nothofagus old-growth forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 55(2):967–976.


Burton, J., Perakis, S., McKenzie, S., Lawrence, C., and Puettmann, K. 2017. Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits. Functional Ecology 31 (10): 1881-1893 doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12898

Ruzicka Jr., K., Puettmann, K. and J.R. Brooks. 2017. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change. Journal of Ecology 105: 1425–1436 DOI:10.1111/1365-2745.12749

Soto, D.P., D.F. Jacobs, C. Salas, P.J. Donoso, C. Fuentes, and K.J. Puettmann. 2017. Light and nitrogen interact to influence regeneration in old-growth Nothofagus-dominated forests in south-central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management 384: 303–313


K.J. Puettmann, Ares, A, Burton, J.I., and E.K. Dodson. 2016. Forest Restoration Using Variable Density Thinning: Lessons from Douglas-Fir Stands in Western Oregon. Forests. 7, 310.

Seidel, D., M.A Ehbrecht, and K.J. Puettmann. 2016. Assessing different components of three-dimensional forest structure with single-scan terrestrial laser scanning: a case study. Forest Ecology and Management. 381:196–208.

Puettmann, K.J., L. Parrott, and C. Messier. 2016. Teaching complex adaptive systems science in natural resource management: Examples from forestry. Natural Sciences Education. 45(1) doi:10.4195/nse2016.04.0009

Messier, C., K. Puettmann, E. Filotas, and D. Coates. 2016. Dealing with Non-linearity and Uncertainty in Forest Management. Current Forestry Reports:1-12.

Burton, J.I., D.H. Olson, and K.J. Puettmann. 2016. Effects of riparian buffer width on down wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning. Forest Ecology and Management. Forest Ecology and Management 372 (2016) 247–257.

Seidel, D., K. Ruzicka, and K.J. Puettmann. 2016. Canopy gaps affect the shape of Douglas-fir crowns in the western Cascades, Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management. 363: 31–38.


Seidel, D., Ammer, C., and K.J. Puettmann. 2015. Describing forest canopy gaps efficiently, accurately, and objectively: new prospects through the use of terrestrial laser scanning. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. pp. 23-32. 10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.06.006

Soto, D., Donoso, P.J. Salas, C., and K.J. Puettmann. 2015. Light availability and soil compaction influence the growth of underplanted Nothofagus following partial shelterwood harvest and soil scarification. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 45(8): 998-1005, 10.1139/cjfr-2014-0353.

Kuehne, C., Weiskittel, A.R., Puettmann, K.J., and S. Fraver. 2015. Effects of thinning induced changes in structural heterogeneity on growth, ingrowth, and mortality in secondary coastal Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 45: 1448–1461

Puettmann, K.J., Wilson, S. McG., Baker, S.C., Donoso, P.J., Droessler, L., Amente, G., Harvey, B.D., Knoke, T., Lu, Y. Nocentini, S., Putz, F.E., Yoshida, T., and Bauhus, J. 2015. Silvicultural alternatives to conventional even-aged forest management - what limits global adoption? Forest Ecosystems. 2:8 doi:10.1186/s40663-015-0031-x

Russell, M.B., A.W. D’Amato, M.A. Albers, C.W. Woodall, K.J. Puettmann, M.R. Saunders, and C.L. Vanderschaaf. Vanderschaaf. 2015. Performance of the Forest Vegetation Simulator in managed white spruce plantations influenced by eastern spruce budworm in northern Minnesota. Forest Science. 61(4): 723-730.

Messier, C., Puettmann, K., Chazdon, R., Andersson, K.P., Angers, V.A., Brotons, L., Filotas, E., Tittler, R., Parrott, L., and S.A. Levin. 2015. From management to stewardship: viewing forests as complex adaptive systems in an uncertain world. Conservation Letters. 8(5): 368–377.


Burton, J.I., Ganio, L., and K.J.Puettmann. 2014. Multi-scale spatial controls of understory vegetation in Douglas-fir - western hemlock forests of western Oregon, USA. Ecosphere 5:art151.

Soto, D., P. Donoso, and K.J. Puettmann. 2014. Mortality in relation to growth rate and soil resistance varies by species for underplanted Nothofagus seedlings in scarified shelterwoods. New Forests. 45:655-669.

Moen, J., Rist, L., Bishop, K., Chapin III, F.; Ellison, D., Kuuluvainen, T., Petersson, H., Puettmann, K., Rayner, J., Warkentin, I., and C. Bradshaw. 2014. Eye on the Taiga: removing global policy impediments to safeguard the boreal forest. Conservation Letters. 7(4):408-418.

Ruzicka, K., D. Oldson, and K.J. Puettmann. 2014. Management of riparian buffers: upslope thinning with downslope impacts. Forest Science. 60(5):881-892.

Dodson, E.K., J.I. Burton,and K.J. Puettmann. 2014. Multi-scale controls on natural regeneration dynamics after partial overstory removal in Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon, USA. Forest Science 60(5): 953-961.

Park, A. Puettmann, K., Wilson, E., Messier, C. Kames, S., and A. Dhar. 2014. Can boreal and temperate forest management be adapted to the uncertainties of 21st Century climate change? Critical Review in Plant Sciences. 33(4): 251-285.

Puettmann, K.J. and J. Tappeiner. 2014. Multi-scale assessments highlight silvicultural opportunities to increase species diversity and spatial variability in forests. Forestry. 87(1): 1-10.

Puettmann, K.J. 2014. Restoring the adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 33:sup1, S15-S27.

Filotas, E., L. Parrott, P. Burton, R. Chazdon, K. Coates, L. Coll, S. Haeussler, K. Martin, S. Nocentini, K. Puettmann, F. Putz, S. Simard, and C. Messier. 2014. Viewing Forests through the Lens of Complex Systems Science. Ecosphere 5(1):1.


Yegorova, S., Betts, M.G., Hagar, J.C., and K.J. Puettmann. 2013. Bird-vegetation associations in thinned and unthinned young Douglas-fir forests ten years after thinning. Forest Ecology and Management. 310: 1057–1070 .

Burton, J.I., A. Ares, D. H. Olson and K.J. Puettmann. 2013. Management tradeoffs between above-ground carbon storage and understory plant species richness in temperate forests. Ecological Applications. 23(6): 1297-1310.

Neill, A., and K.J. Puettmann. 2013. Managing for adaptive capacity: Thinning improves food availability for wildlife and insect pollinators under climate change conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 43: 428–440.

Sheridan, C., J. Hagar, M. Huso, and K.J. Puettmann. 2013. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 28(3): 97-106.


Dodson, E. K., A. Ares, and K.J. Puettmann. 2012. Early responses to thinning treatments designed to accelerate late successional forest structure in young coniferous stands of western Oregon, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 42(2): 345–355

Berger, C., J. McKenna, and K.J. Puettmann. 2012. Understory Response to Repeated Thinning in Douglas-fir Forests of Western Oregon. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 31(6) 589-605.

Ares, A., C. Bright, and K. J. Puettmann. 2012. Mesoscale variation in snag and hardwood Densities and sizes in old-growth forests in western Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 27(1): 12-17.


Messier, C. and K.J. Puettmann. 2011. Forests as complex adaptive systems: implications for forest management and modeling. Invited paper. Italian Journal of Forest and Mountain Environments 66(3): 249-258.

Puettmann, K. J. 2011. Silvicultural challenges and options in the context of global change – “simple” fixes and opportunities for new management approaches. Journal of Forestry. 109(11): 321-331.

Kayes, L.J., K.J. Puettmann, and P.D. Anderson. 2011. Short-term bryoid and vascular vegetation response to reforestation alternatives following wildfire in conifer plantations. Journal of Applied Vegetation Science. (2011) 1–14. Doi: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01129.x

Troumbly, S.J., D’Amato, A. W., Saunders, M.R., Albers, M. and K.J. Puettmann. 2011. Growth and survival of Picea glauca following thinning of plantations affected by eastern spruce budworm. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 28 (2): 72-78.


Ares, A., A.R. Neill, and K. J. Puettmann. 2010. Understory abundance, species diversity and functional attribute response to thinning in coniferous stands. Forest Ecology and Management. 260(7):1104-1113.

Kayes, L.J., Anderson P.D., and K.J. Puettmann. 2010. Succession among and within structural layers following wildfire in managed forests. Journal of Vegetation Science. 21:233-247.


Wilson, D.S., Anderson P.D., and K.J. Puettmann. 2009. Evaluating the consistency of understory vegetation response to forest thinning through synthetic analysis of operational-scale experiments. Forestry. 82: 583-596.

Puettmann, K.J., U. Kohnle, A. W. D'Amato, and J. Bauhus. 2009. Individual tree growth dynamics of mature Abies alba during repeated irregular group shelterwood (Femelschlag) cuttings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 39(12): 2437-2449.

Ares, A., S. D. Berryman, and K. J. Puettmann. 2009. Understory vegetation response to thinning disturbance of varying complexity in coniferous stands. Journal of Applied Vegetation Science. 12(4): 472-487.

Davis, L. and K.J. Puettmann. 2009. Initial response of understory vegetation to three alternative thinning treatments. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 28: 904 – 934.

Bauhus, J., K. Puettmann, and C. Messier. 2009. Silviculture for old-growth attributes. Forest Ecology and Management 258:525-537.

Ammer, C. and K. J. Puettmann. 2009. Waldbau, quo vadis? – Waldbewirtschaftung zwischen Funktionsorientierung und Multifunktionalität (The road ahead of forest management – single or multiple management objectives) Forstarchiv 80: 90-96

Wilson, D.S., Stoddard, M.A., Betts, M.G., and K.J. Puettmann. 2009. Bayesian small-area models for assessing wildlife conservation risk in patchy populations. Conservation Biology. 23(4):982-991.

Boyden, S.B., P.B. Reich, K. J. Puettmann, and T.R. Baker. 2009. Effects of density and ontogeny on size and growth ranks of three competing tree species. Journal of Ecology. 97:277-288.

Kluber, M.R., D.H. Olsen, and K. J. Puettmann. 2009. Downed wood microclimates and their potential impact on Plethodontid salamander habitat in the Oregon Coast Range. Northwest Science. 83(1):25-34.


Puettmann, K. J., A. W. D'Amato, M. Arikian, and J. C. Zasada. 2008. Spatial impacts of soil disturbance and residual overstory on density and growth of regenerating aspen. Forest Ecology and Management. 256:2110-2120.

Kluber, M. R., D. H. Olson, and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Amphibian distributions in riparian and upslope areas and their habitat associations on managed forest landscapes in the Oregon Coast Range. Forest Ecology and Management. 256:529-535.

Zenner, E. K. and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Contrasting release approaches for a mixed paper birch (Betula papyrifera)-quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) stand. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 25:124-132.

Wilson, D. S., M. A. Stoddard, and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Monitoring amphibian populations with incomplete survey information using a Bayesian probabilistic model. Ecological Modelling. 214:210-218.

Kuehne, C. and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Natural regeneration in thinned Douglas-fir stands in western Oregon. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 27:246-274.

Fahey, R. and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Patterns in spatial extent of gap influence on understory plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management. 255:2801-2010.

Sarr, D. and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Forest management, restoration, and designer ecosystems: Integrating strategies for a crowded planet. Invited paper for Special Issue, EcoScience. 15:17-26.

Ganio, L. and K. J. Puettmann. 2008. Designing long-term large-scale forestry experiments with research objectives at multiple scales. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 26(1):1-18.


Zenner, E., J. Fauske, A. Berger, and K. J. Puettmann. 2007. Impacts of skidding traffic intensity on soil disturbance, soil recovery, and aspen regeneration in north-central Minnesota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 24(3):177-183.

Fahey, R. and K. J. Puettmann. 2007. Ground-layer disturbance and initial conditions influence gap partitioning of understory vegetation. Journal of Ecology. 95:1098-1109.

Wilson, D. and K. J. Puettmann. 2007. Density management and biodiversity in young Douglas-fir forests: Challenges of managing across scales. Forest Ecology and Management. 246:123-134

Davis, L. R., K. J. Puettmann and G. F. Tucker.  2007. Overstory response to alternative thinning treatments in young Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon. Northwest Science. 81(1):1-14.

Shatford, J. P. A., D. E. Hibbs and K. J. Puettmann. 2007. Conifer regeneration after forest fire in the Klamath-Siskiyous: how much, how soon? Journal of Forestry. 105(3):139-146.
Media coverage links: Oregonian, Gazette-Times, Washington Post; Innovations Report

Moores, A., K. J. Puettmann and D. Maguire.  2007.  The focus of intensive silvicultural research on coastal Douglas-fir over the last 20 years. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 22(1):21-28.

Krueger, J. A., E. K. Zenner and K. J. Puettmann.  2007. Development of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) regeneration under a reserve shelterwood after intermediate removals and windthrow. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 24(2):134-137.

Puettmann, K. J. and C. Ammer.  2007.  Trends in North American and European Regeneration Research under the Ecosystem Management Paradigm. European Journal of Forest Research. 126:1-9.


Kuehne, C. and K. J. Puettmann.  2006.  Groszraumstudien Nordamerikas – Neue Ansaetze zur waldbaulichen Forschung (Large scale management experiments – new approaches to silvicultural research). Forstarchiv. 77:102-109.

Puettmann, K. J. and C. A. Berger.  2006.  Development of tree and understory vegetation in young Douglas-fir plantations in western Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry.  21(2):94-101.


Zenner, E. K., K. J. Puettmann, and J. A. Krueger.  2005.  Early growth and vigor response of naturally regenerated eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) to various overstory aspen densities and pathological pruning. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry.  22(1):27-34.


Berger, A. L., K. J. Puettmann, and G. E. Host.  2004.  Harvesting impacts on soil and understory vegetation: the influence of season of harvest and within-site disturbance patterns on clear-cut aspen stands in Minnesota. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  34:2159-2168.

Sarr D., K. J. Puettmann, R. Pabst, M. Cornett, and L. Arguello.  2004.  Restoration Ecology: New Perspectives and Opportunities for Forestry. Journal of Forestry.  102(5):20-24.

D'Amato, A. W. and K. J. Puettmann.  2004.  The relative dominance hypothesis explains interaction dynamics in mixed species Alnus rubral Pseudotsuga menziesii stands. Journal of Ecology.  92(3):450-463.

Krueger, J. and K. J. Puettmann.  2004.  Growth and injury patterns of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seedlings as affected by hardwood overstory density and weeding treatments. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 21(2):61-68.  

Rock, J., K. J. Puettmann, H. A. Gockel, and A. Schulte.  2004.  Spatial aspects of the influence of weeping birch (Betula pendula L.) on growth and quality of young oaks (Quercus sp.) in central Germany. Forestry.  77(3):235-247.


Puettmann, K. J. and A. D’Amato.  2002.  Selecting plot sizes when quantifying growing conditions in understories.  Northern Journal of Applied Forestry.  19(3):137-140.


Puettmann, K. J. and M. Saunders.  2001.  Patterns of growth compensation of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.):  The influence of herbivory intensity and competitive environment.  Oecologia.  129(3):376-384.

Cornett, M. W., K. J. Puettmann, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich.  2001.   Comparing the importance of seedbed and canopy type in the restoration of upland Thuja occidentalis forests of northeastern Minnesota. Restoration Ecology.  9(4):386-396.


Puettmann, K. J. and M. Saunders.  2000.  White pine growth response to partial hardwood overstory release.  Northern Journal of Applied Forestry.  17(3):89-94.

Puettmann, K. J.  2000.  Ecosystem Management als neue Grundlage für die Waldbewirtschaftung in Nordamerika. (Ecosystem management as new forest management paradigm in North America).  Forstarchiv.  71(1):3-9.

Cornett, M. W, P. B. Reich, K. J. Puettmann and L. E. Frelich.   2000.  Seedbed and moisture availability determine safe sites for early Thuja Occidentalis (Cupresaceae) regeneration. American Journal of  Botany.  87(12):1807-1814.

Cornett, M. W., L. E. Frelich, K. J. Puettmann and P. B. Reich.  2000.  Conservation implications of browsing by Odocoileus virginianus in remnant upland Thuja occidentalis forests.  Biological Conservation.  93(3):359-369.

Berger, A. and K. J. Puettmann.  2000.  Overstory composition and stand structure influence herbaceous plant diversity in the mixed aspen forest of northern Minnesota.  American Midland Naturalist.  143(1):111-125.


Puettmann, K. J., and A. Ek.  1999.  Status and trends of silvicultural practices in Minnesota.  Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 16(4):203-210.

Saunders, M. and K. J. Puettmann.  1999.  Effects of overstory and understory competition and simulated herbivory on growth and survival of white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  29:536-546.

Saunders, M. and K. J. Puettmann.  1999.  Use of vegetational characteristics and browsing pattens to predict deer damage in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) plantations.  Northern Journal of Applied Forestry.  16(2):96-102.


Cornett, M. W, K. J. Puettmann, and P. B. Reich.  1998.  Canopy type, leaf litter, predation, and competition influence conifer regeneration and early survival in two Minnesota conifer-deciduous forests.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  28:196-205.

Smidt, M., and K. J. Puettmann.  1998.  Understory and canopy competition effect growth of underplanted white pine in Minnesota.  Forest Ecology and Management.  105(1-3):137-150.


Gerlach, J. P., P. Reich, K. Puettmann, and T. Baker.  1997.  Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from (Armillaria spp.) root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research.  27:1509-1512.

Cornett, M. W., P.  B. Reich, and K. J. Puettmann.  1997.  Canopy feedbacks and microtopography regulate conifer seedling distributions in two Minnesota conifer-deciduous forests.  EcoScience.  4(3):353-364.

Bussan, A. J., O. C. Burnside, J. H. Orf, E. Ristau, and K. J. Puettmann.  1997.  Field evaluation of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes for weed competitiveness.  Weed Science  45:31-37


Burns, J., K. J. Puettmann, and D. Perala.  1996.  Strip thinning and spacing increases tree growth of young black spruce.  Northern Journal of Applied Forestry  13:68-72.


Puettmann, K. J., and P. B. Reich.  1995.  The differential sensitivity of red pine and quaking aspen to competition.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research  25:1731-1737.

Bussler, B. H., B. D. Maxwell, and K. J. Puettmann.  1995.  Using plant volume to quantify interference in corn (Zea meas) neighborhoods.  Weed Science  43:586-594. 


Lindquist, J. L., D. Rhode, K. Puettmann, and B. D. Maxwell.  1994.  The influence of plant population spatial arrangement on individual plant yield.  Ecological Applications  4(3):518-524. 


Puettmann, K. J., D. Rhode, B. D. Maxwell, and J. Lindquist.  1993.  An improved measure of angular dispersion in plant neighborhoods.  American Midland Naturalist.  130(2):401-404.

Puettmann, K. J., D. W. Hann, and D. H. Hibbs.  1993.  Evaluation of the size-density relationships for pure red alder and Douglas-fir stands.  Forest Science. 39:7-27.


Puettmann, K. J., D. H. Hibbs and D. W. Hann.  1992.  The dynamics of mixed stands of Alnus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii: extension of size-density analysis to species mixture.  Journal of Ecology.  80(3):449-458.

Back to TOP