Tables for Comparison of Two Forest Certification Systems And Oregon Legal Requirements (Fletcher, Adams & Radosevich)

 

Table 1. Factors guiding the comparison of certification systems and legal requirements.

Program Administration and Process

Sponsor or Administrator

Standard-Setting Process and Participants

Verification Process

Enforcement Protocol

Dispute Resolution Process

Training and Credentialing Required

Public Transparency and Involvement

Forest Planning and Monitoring

Written Plans

Inventory

Sustained Yield

Monitoring

Chain-of-Custody and Labeling

Forest Management Practices

Silviculture

Reforestation

  • Regeneration
  • Site Preparation
  • Genetics

Stand Management

· Stocking Control

· Fertilization

Forest Protection and Health

· Fire and Slash Treatment

· Pests and Pathogens

Access

Harvest and Utilization

Personnel and Supervision

Environmental Considerations

Biological Conservation

·            Ecological Function and Long-Term Productivity

·            Species Conservation

·            Landscape-Scale Concerns

·            Exotic Species

·            Reserves and Special Areas

Water Resources

Soil Resources

Chemicals

Air Quality

Socioeconomic Considerations

Land Tenure and Use

Community and Cultural Relations

Worker Relations

Economic Viability and Stability

Legal and Other Policy Requirements

Visual Management

 

 


Table 2. Comparison and rating of provisions for program administration and process.

Provision

Required

By Law

SFI

Program

FSC-SCS

FSC-Smart Wood

FSC National

Indicators

Sponsor/Administrator

State/Federal Gov.

AF&PA-member organization

For-profit certifier

Nonprofit network of certifiers

FSC-member organization

Standard-Setting Process and Participants

Legislation and Admin. Rules

Originally internal with increasing outside input[1]

Internal with some outside input

Internal with some outside input

Internal with significant outside input

Verification Process

Notifications and plans required with 15-day notice. Inspections at discretion of inspectors

Annual self-reporting required, third-party audits optional. Recertification currently 3-5 years

[2]

Third- party assessment required every 5 years, with annual audits

Third- party assessment required every 5 years, with annual audits

Third-party assessment required every 5 years, with annual audits

Enforcement Protocol

Civil and criminal penalties, suspension of operations and repair orders

Noncompliance can lead to loss of membership/ license. Also loss of certified status

Noncompliance can lead to loss of certified status

Noncompliance can lead to loss of certified status

Certifiers must abide by FSC direction or they may lose FSC accrediting

Dispute Resolution Process

Appeals to Board of Forestry and courts

Currently covered by ANSI–RAB dispute resolution process

[3]

Certifier and contract with FSC backup specified

Certifier and contract with FSC backup specified

FSC has a formal process for hearing and resolving disputes

Training and Credentialing Required

ODF inspectors have academic and work experience required

Auditors must have formal auditing training

Team members chosen by reputation and curriculae vitae

Team leader must have previous experience; other team members must have expertise in forest type

Not specified

Public Transparency and Involvement

Full public disclosure required for all activities

No individual public reporting or stakeholder input is required. If program participant wishes to publicly proclaim audit results, they do so in collaboration with the verifier

[4]

Some stakeholder input and public summary of assessment required

Some stakeholder input and public summary of assessment required

Some public/stakeholder input required

 


Table 3. Comparison and rating of provisions for forest planning and monitoring.

Elements of planning and monitoring

Required

By Law

SFI

FSC-SCS

FSC-Smart Wood

FSC National

Indicators

Written Plans

(<)

Operations plans sometimes required. (=) For stewardship option, plans required.

(=)

Written plan required

(>)

Extensive written plan required

(>)

Extensive written plan required

(>)

Extensive written plan required

Inventory

(<)

Inventory required only for selected resources of public interest.

(=)

Comprehensive inventory required, including biological and geological resources

(=)

Comprehensive inventory required, including a wide range of site parameters

(=)

Comprehensive inventory required, including a wide range of site parameters. Special data collection for old growth and non-timber forest products

(=)

Comprehensive inventory required, including a wide range of site parameters. Special data collection for high- conservation value forests and non-timber forest products

Sustained Yield

(<)

Reforestation requirements help sustain yield over long term

(=)

Calculation of sustained yield required

(>)

Extensive requirements for calculation of and adherence to sustained yield

(>)

Sustained yield includes timber and non-timber resources

(>)

Sustained yield includes timber and non-timber resources

Monitoring

(<)

Some done by ODF, but little required for operators

(>)

Operational monitoring required under continuous improvement objective. Also specific monitoring required for clearcuts, training and public relations

(=)

Operational monitoring

(>)

Operational monitoring with feedback to operations

(>)

Operational monitoring with feedback to operations

Chain of Custody (COC) and Labeling

(<)

Log branding required

(NR)

Source identified labeling for verified operations has been approved but is not yet available

(>)

Full COC and eco-label available

(>)

Full COC and eco-label available

(>)

Full COC and eco-label available

(NR)    item not required by this system

(<)       requirements or specificity less than other systems analyzed

(=)       requirements substantial and/or equal to other systems analyzed

( >)      requirements or specificity greater than other systems analyzed.

Note: Ratings do not represent a judgment of positive or negative impacts of the system provisions, but indicate the relative level of constraints imposed or features offered by the provisions. For example, the three FSC rules examined offer a full chain-of-custody and eco-label so they received a > rating, while the SFI program and Oregon law do not. This does not imply a chain-of-custody and eco-label is better for every producer, but rather that an extra feature is offered by these systems

 


Table 4. Comparison and rating of provisions for forest management practices.

Management practice

Required

by Law

SFI

FSC-SCS

FSC-Smart Wood

FSC National

Indicators

Regeneration

(>)

Extensive requirements

(=)

Clear direction that sites must be promptly reforested after harvests

(=)

Clear direction that sites must be promptly reforested after harvests

(=)

Clear direction that sites must be promptly reforested after harvests

(=)

Clear direction that sites must be promptly reforested after harvests

Site Preparation

(>)

Extensive requirements for soil and water protection

(<)

Minimal requirements

(NR)

(NR)

(>)

Protection of soil and residual trees

Genetics

(=)

Use locally adopted sources

(=)

GMOs okay if law is followed

(>)

GMOs not allowed

(>)

GMOs not allowed

(>)

GMOs not allowed

Stocking Control

(=)

 

(NR)

(>)

Thinning expected

(>)

Thinning expected

(=)

Fertilization

(=)

Fertilization allowed

(=)

Fertilization allowed

(=)

Fertilization allowed, but use of artificial fertilizers discouraged

(=)

Fertilization allowed, but use of artificial fertilizers discouraged

(>)

Fertility maintained through natural cycles

Fire (including slash treatment)

(>)

Extensive directives, mostly for fire control

(=)

Wildfire control and prescribed fires

(=)

Wildfire control and prescribed fires

(=)

Wildfire control and prescribed fires

(=)

Wildfire control and prescribed fires

Pests and Pathogens

(=)

Control of outbreaks required

(=)

Need to control outbreaks

(=)

Use of natural cycles to prevent and control outbreaks

(=)

Use of natural cycles to prevent and control outbreaks

(=)

Use of natural cycles to prevent and control outbreaks

Access

(=)

Access necessary for management

(NR)

(=)

Access necessary for management

(=)

Access necessary for management

(NR)

Harvest and Utilization

(<)

No requirements for utilization

(=)

Minimize waste

(=)

Minimize waste

(=)

Minimize waste

(=)

Optimize use of resources

Personnel and Supervision

(=)

Limited training required

 

(>)

Extensive training required

(=)

Training and supervision required

(=)

Training and supervision required

(=)

Training and supervision required

(NR)    item not required by this system

(<)       requirements or specificity less than other systems analyzed

(=)       requirements substantial and/or equal to other systems analyzed

( >)      requirements or specificity greater than other systems analyzed.

Note: Ratings do not represent a judgment of positive or negative impacts of the system provisions, but indicate the relative level of constraints imposed or extra features offered by the provisions. For example, FSC is the only program that prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), so its requirements are greater than the other systems, and received a > rating. This does not mean that prohibiting the use of GMOs is better than allowing them.

 


Table 5. Comparison and rating of provisions for environmental considerations.

Environmental Consideration

Required

by Law

SFI

FSC-SCS

FSC-Smart Wood

FSC National

Indicators

Ecological Function and Long-term Productivity

(<)

Avoid productivity loss; emphasis is on prevention of resource damage

(=)

Avoid loss of productivity through biological conservation and other measures

(>)

Maintain natural ecological functions to maintain productivity

(>)

Maintain natural ecological functions to maintain productivity

(>)

Maintain natural ecological functions to maintain productivity, restore lost productivity where necessary

Species Conservation

 (=)

Threatened and endangered species only

(=)

Habitat management for species conservation required under several criteria

(>)

Specific requirements for habitat management

(>)

Specific requirements for habitat management

(>)

Specific requirements for habitat management such as management of High Conservation Value Forests

Landscape-Scale Concerns

(NR)

(>)

Management at different scales

(=)

 

(=)

(>)

Management at different scales

Exotic Species

(=)

Use of exotic species for reforestation must be justified by written declaration

(NR)

[5]

(=)

Use of exotic species for reforestation must be justified and is commonly allowed in plantations that do not replace native forests

(=)

Use of exotic species must be justified and is commonly allowed in  plantations that do not replace native forests

(=)

Use of exotic species must be justified and is commonly allowed in  plantations that do not replace native forests

Reserves and Special Areas

(=)

Special areas protected

(=)

Must identify and manage in a way that recognizes special qualities

(>)

Special areas protected and reserve areas established

(>)

Special areas protected and reserve areas established

(>)

Special areas protected and reserve areas established

Water Resources

 (>)

Extensive directives for water protection

(=)

Must meet water laws. Protect water quality

(=)

Meet or exceed water laws

(>)

Exceed state standard in areas such as culvert sizing

(=)

Meet or exceed water laws

Soil Resources

(=)

(=)

(=)

(=)

(>)

Repair and restore degraded areas

Chemicals

(=)

Notification required for each application

(=)

Meet or exceed laws; be economically and environmentally responsible and train employees

(>)

Use must be justified, with eventual elimination of use the goal

(>)

Use must be justified, with eventual elimination of use the goal

(>)

Use must be justified, with eventual elimination of use the goal

Air Quality

(>)

Air is public asset and is specifically protected by law

(<)

Mentioned in standard under objective 2, but no indicators listed

(NR)

(NR)

(NR)

(NR)    item not required by this system

(<)       requirements or specificity less than other systems analyzed

(=)       requirements substantial and/or equal to other systems analyzed

( >)      requirements or specificity greater than other systems analyzed.

Note: Ratings do not represent a judgment of positive or negative impacts of the system provisions, but indicate the relative level of constraints imposed or extra features offered by the provisions.

 

 


Table 6. Comparison and rating of provisions for socioeconomic considerations.

Socioeconomic factor

Required

by Law

SFI

FSC-SCS

FSC-Smart Wood

FSC National

Indicators

Land Tenure and Use

(>)

Retaining land in forest use is mandated by state law

(NR)

(=)

Use and tenure are points of emphasis

(=)

Use and tenure are points of emphasis

(=)

Use and tenure are points of emphasis

Community and Cultural Relations

(=)

Public values are focus

(=)

Focus is communicating sustainable forestry efforts to broader public

(>)

Specific requirements regarding responsibility to local communities

(>)

Specific references and responsibility to local communities

(>)

Specific references and responsibility to local communities

Worker Relations

(>)

Worker rights and safety are specifically protected

(=)

Significant training required for employees

(>)

Must show evidence of good conditions for workers

(>)

Must show evidence of good conditions for workers

(>)

Must show evidence of good conditions for workers

Economic Viability and Stability

(<)

Only broad goal is stated

(<)

Addressed implicitly through the SFI Standard

(=)

Long-term economic viability is goal; reinvestment required

(=)

Long-term economic viability is goal; reinvestment required

(=)

Long-term economic viability is goal; reinvestment required

Legal and Other Policy Requirements

(>)

Compliance with all state laws and rules.

(<)

Must meet reforestation, water and chemical laws

[6]

(=)

Must meet or exceed all applicable laws

(=)

Must meet or exceed all applicable laws

(=)

Must meet or exceed all applicable laws

Visual Management

(=)

Visual management required for scenic corridors

(+)

Major emphasis on visual management

(=)

(=)

(NR)

(NR)    item not required by this system

(<)       requirements or specificity less than other systems analyzed

(=)       requirements substantial and/or equal to other systems analyzed

( >)      requirements or specificity greater than other systems analyzed.

Note: Ratings do not represent a judgment of positive or negative impacts of the system provisions, but indicate the relative level of constraints imposed or features offered by the provisions

 



[1] Currently the SFI program is overseen by a Sustainable Forestry Board composed of 60% outside stakeholders. The current  revision of the SFI Standard also includes broad public review.

[2] Will add annual surveillance audit if new rules are adopted Jan. 2002.

[3] SFI program will have its own dispute resolution process if planned directives are adopted Jan. 2002.

[4] Public agencies undergoing an FSC or SFI certification, however, require full disclosure of the entire certification reports and process.

[5] SFB has approved new guidelines for use of exotic species, which are planned to take effect in Jan. 2002.

[6]  On August 17, 2001 the Sustainable Forestry Board approved a comprehensive statement that will require SFI Program participants to meet all applicable forestry and related laws and regulations. This is planned for finalization in October 2001 and inclusion in the new SFI Standard in January 2002.