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Hayward, M.W., W.J. Ripple, G.I.H. Kerley, M. Landman, R.D. Plotz, S.T. Garnett. Neocolonial Conservation: Is Moving Rhinos to Australia Conservation or Intellectual Property Loss Conservation Letters doi: 10.1111/conl.12354, 2017: .

Gray, T.N.E., et al. Wildlife-snaring crisis in Asian forests Science 355(6322), 2017: 255-256.

Ripple, W.J., G. Chapron, J.V. Lopez-Bao, S.M. Durant, D.W. Macdonald, P.A. Lindsey, E.L. Bennett, R.L. Beschta, et al. Conserving the World's Megafauna and Biodiversity: The Fierce Urgency of Now Bioscience doi:10.1093/biosci/biw168, 2017: .

Ripple, W.J., et al. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals The Royal Society Open Science http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9, 2016: .

Gordon, C.E., et al. Shrub encroachment is linked to extirpation of an apex predator Journal of Animal Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12607, 2016: .

Holm, S. R., B. R. Noon, J. D. Wiens, and W. J. Ripple. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion The Wildlife Society Bulletin 40(4):615-624, 2016: .

Ripple, W.J., et al. What is a Trophic Cascade? Trends in Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.08.010, 2016: .

Wolf, C., and W.J. Ripple. Prey depletion as a threat to the world's large carnivores Royal Society Open Science DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160252 , 2016: .

Ripple, W.J., et al. Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna BioScience doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw092, 2016: .

Ripple, W.J., T.M. Newsome, and G.I.H. Kerley. Does Trophy Hunting Support Biodiversity? A Response to Di Minin et al. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31(7):495-496, 2016: doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.03.011.

Ripple, W.J., et al. Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna, Supplemental Material BioScience doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw092, 2016: .

Virgos, E., et al. A poor international standard for trap selectivity threatens carnivore conservation Biodivers Conserv doi: 10.1007/s10531-016-1117-7, 2016: .

Beschta, R., and W.J. Ripple. Riparian vegetation recovery in Yellowstone: The first two decades after wolf reintroduction Biological Conservation 198, 2016: 93-103.

Newsome, T.M., et al. Food habits of the world's grey wolves Mammal Review doi: 10.1111/mam.12067, 2016: .

Beschta, R.L., L.E. Painter, T. levi, and W.J. Ripple. Long-term aspen dynamics, trophic cascades, and climate in northern Yellowstone National Park Canadian Journal of Forest Research 46, 2016: 548-556.

Everatt, K.T., L. Andresen, W.J. Ripple, and G.I.H. Kerley. Rhino poaching may cause atypical trophic cascades Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 14, 2016: 65-67.

Hernan Sarasola, J. et al. Hypercarnivorous apex predator could provide ecosystem services by dispersing seeds Scientific Reports 6, 2016: .

Newsome, T.M., J.T. Bruskotter and W.J. Ripple. When shooting a coyote kills a wolf: Mistaken identity or misguided management? Biodivers Conserv , 2015: .

Machovina, B, K.J. Feeley and W.J. Ripple. Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption Science of the Total Environment 536, 2015: 419-431.

Ripple, W.J, R.L. Beschta and L.E. Painter. Trophic cascades from wolves to alders in Yellowstone Forest Ecology and Management 354, 2015: 254-260.

Ripple, W.J., et al. Collapse of the world's largest herbivores Science Advances , 2015: .

Ripple, W.J., R.L. Beschta, J.K. Fortin and C.T. Robbins. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears Journal of Animal Ecology 84, 2015: 652-654.

McAlpine, C.A, et al. Transformational change: creating a safe operating space for humanity Ecology and Society 20(1), 2015: 56.

Van Valkenburgh, B, M.W. Hayward, W.J. Ripple, C. Meloro and V.L. Roth. The impact of large terrestrial carnivores on Pleistocene ecosystems PNAS , 2015: .

Wallach, A.D, I. Izhaki, J.D. Toms, W.J. Ripple and U. Shanas. What is an apex predator? Oikos , 2015: .

Eisenberg, C., D.E. Hibbs, and W.J. Ripple. Effects of predation risk on elk (Cervus elaphus) landscape use in a wolf (Canis lupus) dominated system Can. J. Zool. 93, 2015: 99-111.

Painter, L.E, R.L. Beschta, E.J. Larsen, and W.J. Ripple. Recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in Yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade? Ecology 96(1), 2015: 252-263.

Wallach, A.D, W.J. Ripple and S.P. Carroll. Novel trophic cascades: apex predators enable coexistence Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30, 2015: 146-153.

Newsome, T.M., et al. Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration Restoration Ecology , 2015: .

Batchelor, J.L, W.J. Ripple, T.M. Wilson and L.E. Painter. Restoration of Riparian Areas Following the Removal of Cattle in the Northwestern Great Basin Environmental Management DOI: 10.1007/s00267-014-0436-2, 2015: .

Beschta, R., and W.J. Ripple. Divergent patterns of riparian cottonwood recovery after the return of wolves in Yellowstone, USA Ecohydrology 8, 2015: 58-66.

Newsome, T.M. and W.J. Ripple. Carnivore coexistence: Trophic cascades Science 347, 2015: 383.

Newsome, T.M., et al. The ecological effects of providing resource subsidies to predators Global Ecology and Biogeography , 2014: doi: 10.1111/geb.12236.

Ripple, W.J., et al. Status and Ecological Effects of the World's Largest Carnivores Science 343, 2014: doi: 10.1126/science.1241484.

Sergio, F., et al. Towards a cohesive, holistic view of top predation: a definition, synthesis and perspective Oikos Journal 123, 2014: 1234-1243. doi: 10.1111/oik.01468.

Painter, L.E, R.L. Beschta, E.J. Larsen, and W.J. Ripple. After long-term decline, are aspen recovering in northern Yellowstone? Forest Ecology and Management 329, 2014: 108-117.

Newsome, T.A., and W.J. Ripple. A continental scale trophic cascade from wolves through coyotes to foxes Journal of Animal Ecology , 2014: .

Eisenberg, C., D.E. Hibbs, W.J. Ripple, and H. Salwasser. Context dependence of elk (Cervus elaphus) vigilance and wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk Can. J. Zool 92, 2014: 727-736.

Ripple, W.J., et al. Commentary: Ruminants, climate change and climate policy Nature Climate Change 4, 2014: 2-5.

Rosenblatt, A.E., M.R. Heithaus, M.E. Mather, P. Matich, J.C. Nifong, W.J. Ripple, and B.R. Silliman. The Roles of Large Top Predators in Coastal Ecosystems: New Insights from Long Term Ecological Research Oceanography 26(3), 2013: 156-167.

Ripple, W.J., Beschta, R.L., Fortin, J.K. and C.T. Robbins. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone Journal of Animal Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12123, 2013: .

Beschta, R., and W.J. Ripple. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade - Comment Ecology. [doi:10.1890/11-0063.1] 94(6), 2013: 1420-1425.

Painter, L. Trophic Cascades and Large Mammals in the Yellowstone Ecosystem PhD Dissertation , 2013: 137pp.

Cromsight, J., et al. Hunting for fear: innovating management of human-wildlife conflicts Journal of Applied Ecology , 2013: .

Ripple, W.J., Wirsing, A.J., Wilmers, C.C, and Letnic, M. Widespread mesopredator effects after wolf extirpation Biological Conservation 160, 2013: 70-79.

Beschta, R.L., and Ripple, W.J. The role of large predators in maintaining riparian plant communities and river morphology Geomorphology 157-158, 2012: 88-98.

Beschta, R.L., and Ripple, W.J. Berry-producing shrub characteristics following wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park Forest Ecology and Management 276, 2012: 132-138.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Large predators limit herbivore densities in northern forest ecosystems Eur J Wildl Res 2012: DOI 10.1007/s10344-012-0623-5.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Trophic cascades in Yellowstone: The first 15 years after wolf reintroduction Biological Conservation 145, 2012: 205-213. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.005.

Painter, L.E. and W.J. Ripple. Effects of bison on willow and cottonwood in northern Yellowstone National Park Forest Ecology and Management 264, 2012: 150-158.

Miller, B.J., Harlow, H.J., Harlow, T.S., Biggins, D. and W.J. Ripple. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals Can. J. Zool. 90, 2012: 70-78.

Estes JA, Terborgh J, Brashares JS, Power ME, Berger J, Bond WJ, Carpenter SR, Essington TE, Holt RD, Jackson JBC, Marquis RJ, Oksanen L, Oksanen T, Paine RT, Pikitch EK, Ripple WJ, Sandin SA, Scheffer M, Schoener TW, Shurin JB, Sinclair ARE, Soule ME, Virtanen R, Wardle DA. Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth Science 333, 2011: 301-306 .

Ripple, W.J., Wirsing, A.J., Beschta, R.L., and S.W. Buskirk. Can Restoring Wolves Aid in Lynx Recovery? Wildlife Society Bulletin 35(4), 2011: 514-518. DOI: 10.1002/wsb.59.

Wirsing, A.J., and W.J. Ripple. A comparison of shark and wolf research reveals similar behavioral responses by prey Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(6), 2011: 335-341.

Ripple, W.J, Painter, L.E., Beschta, R.L. and C.C. Gates. Wolves, Elk, Bison, and Secondary Trophic Cascades in Yellowstone National Park The Open Ecology Journal 3, 2010: 31-37.

Beschta, R.L., and W.J. Ripple. Mexican wolves, elk, and aspen in Arizona: Is there a trophic cascade? Forest Ecology and Management 260, 2010: 915-922.

Ripple, W.J. and B. Van Valkenburgh. Linking Top-down Forces to the Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions BioScience 60(7), 2010: 516-526.

Laundre, John W., Hernandez, Lucina, and Ripple, William J. The Landscape of Fear: Ecological Implications of Being Afraid The Open Ecology Journal 3, 2010: 1-7.

Ripple, W.J., T.P. Rooney, and R.L. Beschta. Large Predators, Deer, and Trophic Cascades in Boreal and Temperate Ecosystems In Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature, edited by J. Terborgh and J. Estes Island Press, 2010: 141-161.

Beschta, Robert L., and Ripple, W.J. Recovering Riparian Plant Communities with Wolves in Northern Yellowstone, USA Restoration Ecology 18(3), 2010: 380-389.

Beschta, Robert L., and Ripple, William J. Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States Biological Conservation 142, 2009: 2401-2414.

Manning, Adrian D.; Gordon, Iain J.; and Ripple, William J. Restoring landscapes of fear with wolves in the Scottish Highlands Biological Conservation 2009.

Prugh, L.R. et al. The Rise of the Mesopredator Bioscience 59(9), October 2009: 779-791.

Halofsky, Joshua S.; Ripple, William J.; and Beschta, Robert L. Recoupling fire and aspen recruitment after wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park, USA Forest Ecology and Management 256, 2008: 1004-1008.

Halofsky, Joshua, and Ripple, William. Linkages between wolf presence and aspen recruitment in the Gallatin elk winter range of southwestern Montana, USA. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research 81(2), April 2008: 195-207.

Halofsky, Joshua S., and Ripple, William J. Fine-scale predation risk on elk after wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Oecologia/Springer-Verlag 2008.

Beschta, Robert L., and Ripple, W.J. Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic National Park, USA Wiley InterScience - www.interscience.wiley.com 2008.

Ripple, W.J., and Beschta, R.L. Trophic cascades involving cougar, mule deer, and black oaks in Yosemite National Park Biological Conservation 141(5), May 2008: 1249-1256.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves. Biological Conservation 138, June 2007: 514-519.

Halofsky, Joshua S. Evidence of a Trophic Cascade among Wolves, Elk, and Aspen in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Dissertation April 19, 2007.

Beschta, R.L. and Ripple, William J. Wolves, elk, and aspen in the winter range of Jasper National Park, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 2007: 1873-1885.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Hardwood tree decline following large carnivore loss on the Great Plains, USA. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 5(5), 2007: 241-246.

Hollenbeck, Jeff P., and Ripple, William J. Aspen snag dynamics, cavity-nesting birds, and trophic cascades in Yellowstone's northern range. Forestry Ecology and Management 255, 2007: 1095-1103.

Beschta, Robert L., and Ripple, William J. Increased Willow Heights along northern Yellowstone's Blacktail Deer Creek following wolf reintroduction. Western North American Naturalist 67(4), 2007: 613-617.

Hollenbeck, Jeff P. and Ripple, William J. Aspen patch and migratory bird relationships in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 2007.

Larsen, T. and Ripple, W.J. Modeling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Habitat in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. Journal of Conservation Planning 2, 2006: 17-33.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Linking wolves to willows via risk-sensitive foraging by ungulates in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem. Forest Ecology and Management 230, 2006: 96-106.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park. Biological Conservation 133, 2006: 397-408.

Beschta, R.L. and Ripple, W.J. River channel dynamics following extirpation of wolves in northwestern Yellowstone National Park,USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31, 2006: 1525-1539.

Hollenbeck, Jeff P. Multi-scale Relationships Between Aspen and Birds in the Northern Yellowstone Ecosystem. Dissertation 2006.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Linking Wolves and Plants: Aldo Leopold on Trophic Cascades. BioScience Vol. 55 No. 7, July 2005: 613-621.

Larsen, E.J. and Ripple, W.J. Aspen Stand Conditions on Elk Winter Ranges in the Northern Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Natural Areas Journal 25(4), 2005: 326-338.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Refugia from browsing as reference sites for restoration planning. Western North American Naturalist 65(2), 2005: 269-273.

Beschta, R.L. Reduced Cottonwood Recruitment Following Extirpation of Wolves in Yellowstone's Northern Range. Ecology 86(2), 2005: 391-403.

Beschta, R.L. and W.J. Ripple. Rapid Assessment of Riparian Cottonwood Recruitment: Middle Fork John Day River, Northeastern Oregon. Ecological Restoration 23(3), 2005: 150-156.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Willow thickets protect young aspen from elk browsing after wolf reintroduction. Western North American Naturalist 65(1), 2005: 118-122.

Ripple, William J. and Beschta, Robert L. Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems? BioScience Vo.l 54 No. 8, August 2004: 755-766.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Wolves, elk, willows, and trophic cascades in the upper Gallatin Range of Southwestern Montana, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 200, 2004: 161-181.

Laliberte, Andrea S. and Ripple, William J. Range Contractions of North American Carnivores and Ungulates. BioScience 54(2), 2004: 123-138.

Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. Wolf reintroduction, predation risk, and cottonwood recovery in Yellowstone National Park. Forest Ecology and Management 184, 2003: 299-313.

Larsen, E.J. and W.J. Ripple. Aspen age structure in the northern Yellowstone Ecosystem:USA. Forest Ecology and Management 179, 2003: 469-482.

Beschta, R.L. Cottonwoods, elk, and wolves in the Lamar Valley of Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Applications 13(5), 2003: 1295-1309.

Rundio, David E. and Olson, Deanna H. Antipredator Defenses of Larval Pacific Giant Salamanders (Dicamptodon Tenebrosus) against Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus Clarki). Copeia 2003(2), 2003: 392-397.

Laliberte, A.S. and Ripple, William J. Wildlife Encounters by Lewis and Clark: A Spatial Analysis of Interactions between Native Americans and Wildlife. BioScience 53(10), 2003: 994-1003.

Rundio, David E. Coexistence of Top Predators in Headwater Streams: Pathways of Intraguild Predation between Pacific Giant Salamander Larvae and Cutthroat Trout. July 8, 2002.

Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range. The National Acadamy of Science 2002.

Ripple, W.J. and Larsen, E.J. The Role of Postfire Coarse Woody Debris in Aspen Regeneration. Western North American Naturalist 16(2), 2001: 61-64.

Ripple, W. J., E. J. Larsen, R. A. Renkin, D. W. Smith. Trophic Cascades among wolves, elk and aspen on Yellowstone National Park's northern range. Biological Conservation 102, 2001: 227-234.

Rundio, David E. and Olson, Deanna H. Palatability of Southern Torrent Salamander (Rhyacotriton Variegatus) Larvae to Pacific Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon Tenebrosus) Larvae. Journal of Herpetology 35(1), 2001: 133-136.

Ripple, W.J. and Larsen, E.J. Historic aspen recruitment, elk, and wolves in northern Yellowstone National Park, USA. Biological Conservation 95, 2000: 361-370.

Larsen, E.J. and W.J. Ripple. Remote Sensing of Aspen Change in Northern Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished manuscript 1997.

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